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First Name: Hugh

Last Name: Thompson

Birthplace: Atlanta, GA, USA

Gender: Male

Branch: Army (1784 - present)

Middle Name: Clowers

Date of Birth: 15 April 1943

Date of Death: 06 January 2006

Rank: Major

Years Served: 1961-1964 USN; 1966-1983 USA
Hugh Clowers Thompson, Jr.

•  Vietnam War (1960 - 1973)


Hugh Clowers Thompson, Jr.
Major, U.S. Army

Hugh Clowers Thompson, Jr. was born on 15 April 1943 in Atlanta, GA. He grew up in rural Stone Mountain, GA, raised by his strict parents. After dropping out of Troy State University, he volunteered for the U.S. Navy in 1961 and served with a Seabee construction unit from 1961-64. After this, he returned home to Georgia and ran a funeral home.

Military Career

Having always wanted to fly, Thompson joined the U.S. Army in 1966 and trained to become a helicopter pilot at Fort Wolters, TX, and Fort Rucker, AL. Warrant Officer 1 Thompson arrived in Vietnam in late December 1967 and joined the 161st Aviation Company (Assault Helicopter), which was reorganized and expanded into the 123rd Aviation Battalion of the 23rd Infantry Division (Americal) in January 1968. Known as an aggressive and exceptional pilot, WO1 Thompson flew a Hiller OH-23 Raven observation helicopter as part of Company B (the 'Warlords'). On 16 March 1968, he and his crew were supporting Task Force Barker (a battalion-sized element of the Americal) in a reconnaissance capacity. One of his door-gunners was his crew chief, Specialist Glenn Andreotta; the other door-gunner was Specialist Lawrence Colburn.

My Lai Massacre

In the early morning of 16 March 1968, WO1 Thompson's OH-23 encountered no enemy fire over My Lai 4. Spotting two possible Viet Cong suspects, he forced the Vietnamese men to surrender and flew them off for a tactical interrogation. WO1 Thompson also marked the location of several wounded Vietnamese with green smoke, a signal that they needed help.

Returning to the My Lai area at around 0900 after refueling, he noticed that the people he had marked were now dead. Out in a paddy field beside a dike 200 meters south of the village, he marked the location of a wounded young Vietnamese woman. WO1 Thompson and his crew watched from a low hover as Captain Ernest Medina (commanding officer of C Company, 1st Battalion, 20th Infantry Regiment) came up to the woman, prodded her with his foot, and then shot and killed her.

WO1 Thompson then flew over an irrigation ditch filled with dozens of bodies. Shocked at the sight, he radioed his accompanying gunships, knowing his transmission would be monitored by many on the radio net: "It looks to me like there's an awful lot of unnecessary killing going on down there. Something ain't right about this. There's bodies everywhere. There's a ditch full of bodies that we saw. There's something wrong here."

Movement from the ditch indicated to Thompson that there were still people alive in there. WO1 Thompson landed his helicopter and dismounted. David Mitchell, a sergeant and squad leader in 1st Platoon, C Company, walked over to him. When asked by Thompson whether any help could be provided to the people in the ditch, the sergeant replied that the only way to help them was to put them out of their misery. Second Lieutenant William Calley (commanding officer of the 1st Platoon, C Company) then came up, and the two had the following conversation:

Thompson: What's going on here, Lieutenant?

Calley: This is my business.

Thompson: What is this? Who are these people?

Calley: Just following orders.

Thompson: Orders? Whose orders?

Calley: Just following...

Thompson: But, these are human beings, unarmed civilians, sir.

Calley: Look Thompson, this is my show. I'm in charge here. It ain't your concern.

Thompson: Yeah, great job.

Calley: You better get back in that chopper and mind your own business.

Thompson: You ain't heard the last of this!

WO1 Thompson took off again, and SPC Andreotta reported that SGT Mitchell was now executing the people in the ditch. Furious, Thompson flew over the northeast corner of the village and spotted a group of about 10 civilians, including children, running toward a homemade bomb shelter. Pursuing them were soldiers from the 2nd Platoon, C Company. Realizing that the soldiers intended to murder the Vietnamese, WO1 Thompson landed his aircraft between them and the villagers. Thompson turned to SPC Colburn and SPC Andreotta and told them that if the Americans began shooting at the villagers or him, they should fire their M60 machine guns at the Americans: "Y'all cover me! If these bastards open up on me or these people, you open up on them. Promise me!" He then dismounted to confront the 2nd Platoon's leader, LT Stephen Brooks. Thompson told him he wanted help getting the peasants out of the bunker:

Thompson: Hey listen, hold your fire. I'm going to try to get these people out of this bunker. Just hold your men here.

Brooks: Yeah, we can help you get 'em out of that bunker - with a hand grenade!

Thompson: Just hold your men here. I think I can do better than that.

2LT Brooks declined to argue with him, although as a commissioned officer he outranked Thompson, a Warrant Officer.

After coaxing the 11 Vietnamese out of the bunker, WO1 Thompson persuaded the pilots of the two UH-1 Huey gunships (Dan Millians and Brian Livingstone) flying as his escort to evacuate them. While Thompson was returning to base to refuel, SPC Andreotta spotted movement in an irrigation ditch filled with approximately 100 bodies. The helicopter again landed and the men dismounted to search for survivors. After wading through the remains of the dead and dying men, women and children, SPC Andreotta extracted a live boy named Do Ba. WO1 Thompson flew the survivor to the ARVN hospital in Quang Ngai.

Upon returning to their base at about 1100, WO1 Thompson heatedly reported the massacre to his superiors. His allegations of civilian killings quickly reached Lieutenant Colonel Frank Barker, the operation's overall commander. LTC Barker radioed his executive officer to find out from CPT Medina what was happening on the ground. Medina then gave the cease-fire order to Charlie Company to "knock off the killing."

After the Massacre

WO1 Thompson made an official report of the killings, and was even interviewed by Colonel Oran Henderson, Commander of the 11th Infantry Brigade (the parent organization of the 20th Infantry). Concerned, senior Americal officers canceled similar planned operations by Task Force Barker against other villages (My Lai 5, My Lai 1, etc.) in Quang Ngai Province, possibly preventing the additional massacre of hundreds, if not thousands, of Vietnamese civilians.

Initially, commanders throughout the Americal's chain of command were successful in covering up the My Lai Massacre. Somewhat perversely, WO1 Thompson quickly received the Distinguished Flying Cross for his actions at My Lai. The citation for the award fabricated events and praised Thompson for taking to a hospital a Vietnamese child "caught in intense crossfire" and said that his "sound judgment had greatly enhanced Vietnamese-American relations in the operational area." WO1 Thompson threw the citation away.

WO1 Thompson continued to fly observation missions in the OH-23 Raven and was hit by enemy fire a total of eight times. In four of those instances, his aircraft was lost. In the last incident, his helicopter was brought down by enemy machine gun fire, and he broke his back in the resulting crash landing. This ended his combat career in Vietnam, and he was evacuated to a hospital in Japan and began a long period of rehabilitation. He carried psychological scars from his service in Vietnam for the rest of his life.

When news of the massacre publicly broke, WO1 Thompson repeated his account to then-Colonel William Wilson and then-Lieutenant General William Peers during their official Pentagon investigations. In late 1969, Thompson was summoned to Washington, DC, and appeared before a special closed hearing of the House Armed Services Committee. There, he was sharply criticized by Congressmen, in particular Chairman Mendel Rivers (D-SC), who were anxious to play down allegations of a massacre by American troops. Rivers publicly stated that he felt Thompson was the only soldier at My Lai who should be punished (for turning his weapons on fellow American troops) and unsuccessfully attempted to have him court-martialed. As word of his actions became publicly known, WO1 Thompson started receiving hate mail, death threats and mutilated animals on his doorstep.

After his Vietnam service, WO1 Thompson was assigned to Fort Rucker, AL, to become an instructor pilot and later got his direct commission. His other military assignments included: Fort Jackson, SC; Korea; Fort Ord, CA; Fort Hood, TX; and bases in Hawaii. Thompson retired from the Army in 1983 with the rank of Major.

Post-Military Career

As a civilian, Thompson became a helicopter pilot for the oil industry, operating in the Gulf of Mexico. In 1988 an English documentary film producer, Michael Bilton, working for Yorkshire Television, managed to contact him via his mother, who was then widowed and living in Texas. At that point, Thompson had all but disappeared off the radar. Bilton had been talking with his former crew member, Larry Colburn, and put the two in touch with each other after a gap of nearly 16 years. Both Thompson and Colburn had been trying to find each other without success. Thompson was living in Lafayette, LA, and Colburn near Atlanta, GA, and they quickly arranged a reunion. Bilton flew down and spent a long weekend with Thompson discussing the events at My Lai. It proved the beginning of a long friendship which lasted until Thompson's death.

Both Thompson and Colburn agreed to be interviewed for the film Four Hours in My Lai (1989) (Remember My Lai? for PBS in the U.S.) - which went on to win a British Academy Award and an International Emmy. The interview showed Thompson overcome with grief at what he had witnessed at My Lai and his sense of powerlessness at being able to prevent it happening. "Here we were supposed to be the guys in the white hats. It upset me." Bilton and his colleague, Kevin Sim, then began researching a book and Bilton conducted further interviews with Thompson and Colburn. When the book Four Hours in My Lai (1992) (don`t confuse with My Lai 4 (1970) in 2009 turned into film) was published it prompted a campaign to have the heroism of Thompson and his helicopter crew recognized. Several senior figures in the U.S. military supported the campaign, as did President George H.W. Bush. Thompson and Colburn were invited to speak to a wide range of audiences about the ethics of warfare including a conference in Norway, and at Connecticut College in New London, CT, where they were each awarded an honorary doctorate. Bilton was specially invited by Connecticut College to introduce Thompson and Colburn to the audience of students and academics.

Thompson served as a counselor in the Louisiana Department of Veterans Affairs, and gave a lecture at the U.S. Naval Academy in 2003 and the U.S. Military Academy in 2005 on Professional Military Ethics. He also spoke at the U.S. Air Force Academy and to U.S. Marine Corps Officers at Quantico. Thompson and his crew's actions have been used as an example in the ethics manuals of U.S. and European militaries. In 2005, he retired from Louisiana Veterans Affairs.

Recognition for Actions at My Lai

Exactly thirty years after the massacre, Thompson, Andreotta, and Colburn were awarded the Soldier's Medal (SPC Andreotta was killed in action three weeks after the massacre; his medal was awarded posthumously), the U.S. Army's highest award for bravery not involving direct contact with the enemy. "It was the ability to do the right thing even at the risk of their personal safety that guided these soldiers to do what they did," then-Major General Michael Ackerman said at the 1998 ceremony. The three "set the standard for all soldiers to follow." Additionally, on 10 March 1998, Senator Max Cleland (D-GA) entered a tribute to Thompson, Colburn and Andreotta into the record of the U.S. Senate. Cleland said the three men were, "true examples of American patriotism at its finest."

Also in 1998, Thompson and Colburn returned to the village of My Lai, where they met some of the villagers they had rescued, including Thi Nhung and Pham Thi Nhanh, two women who had been part of the group that was about to be killed by LT Brooks' 2nd Platoon. They also dedicated a new elementary school for the children of the village.

In 1999, Thompson and Colburn received the Peace Abbey Courage of Conscience Award. Later that year, both men served as co-chairs of STONEWALK, a group who pulled a one-ton rock engraved "Unknown Civilians Killed in War" from Boston to Arlington National Cemetery.

In a 2004 interview with 60 Minutes, Thompson was quoted referring to C Company's men involved in the massacre: "I mean, I wish I was a big enough man to say I forgive them, but I swear to God, I can't."

Medals, Awards and Badges

Distinguished Flying Cross
Soldier's Medal
Bronze Star Medal
Purple Heart
Air Medal with Award Numeral 1
National Defense Service Medal
Vietnam Service Medal with 2 Bronze Stars
Vietnam Campaign Medal
Army Aviator Badge

Soldier's Medal Citation

The President of the United States of America, authorized by Act of Congress, July 2, 1926, takes pleasure in presenting the Soldier's Medal to Warrant Officer One (WO-1) Hugh C. Thompson, Jr., United States Army, for heroism above and beyond the call of duty as Pilot of an OH-23 Raven Observation Helicopter of the 123d Aviation Battalion, Americal Division, on 16 March 1968, while saving the lives of at least 10 Vietnamese civilians during the unlawful massacre of noncombatants by American forces at My Lai, Quang Ngai Province, South Vietnam. Warrant Officer Thompson landed his helicopter in the line of fire between fleeing Vietnamese civilians and pursuing American ground troops to prevent their murder. He then personally confronted the leader of the American ground troops and was prepared to open fire on those American troops should they fire upon the civilians. Warrant Officer Thompson, at the risk of his own personal safety, went forward of the American lines and coaxed the Vietnamese civilians out of the bunker to enable their evacuation. Leaving the area after requesting and overseeing the civilians' air evacuation, his crew spotted movement in a ditch filled with bodies south of My Lai Four. Warrant Officer Thompson again landed his helicopter and covered his crew as they retrieved a wounded child from the pile of bodies. He then flew the child to the safety of a hospital at Quang Ngai. Warrant Officer Thompson's relayed radio reports of the massacre and subsequent report to his section leader and commander resulted in an order for the cease fire at My Lai and an end to the killing of innocent civilians. Warrant Officer Thompson's heroism exemplifies the highest standards of personal courage and ethical conduct, reflecting distinct credit on him, and the United States Army.


● On 8 February 2006, Congressman Charles Boustany (R-LA) made a statement in Congress honoring Thompson, stating that the "U.S. has lost a true hero, and the State of Louisiana has lost a devoted leader and dear friend."
● In 2010, the Hugh Thompson Foundation was chartered, in memory of Thompson's courage in halting the massacre.

Commemoration in Music

● Folk singer, David Rovics, wrote a song about the incident at My Lai called "Song for Hugh Thompson."
● Ryan Costello, of The Oaks, wrote a song commemorating Hugh Thompson's heroism in "For Hugh Thompson, Who Stood Alone" on the album Our Fathers and the Things They Left Behind.
● Thom Parrott (aka Tom Parrott) wrote the song "Pinkville Helicopter" about the massacre. It is included on the Smithsonian Folkways CD collection Best of Broadside.

Death and Burial

At the age of 62, after extensive treatment for cancer, Major Hugh Clowers Thompson, Jr., was removed from life support and died on 6 January 2006, at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Pineville, LA. Colburn came from Atlanta to be at his bedside. Thompson was buried at Lafayette Memorial Park in Lafayette, LA, with full military honors, including a three-volley salute and a helicopter flyover.

Honoree ID: 3145   Created by: MHOH




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