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First Name: John

Last Name: Pershing

Birthplace: Laclede, MO, USA

Gender: Male

Branch: Army (1784 - present)

Middle Name: Joseph

Date of Birth: 13 September 1860

Date of Death: 15 July 1948

Rank: General of the Armies

Years Served: 1886-1924
John Joseph Pershing
'Black Jack'

Graduate, U.S. Military Academy, Class of 1886

•  Spanish-American War (1898)
•  Philippine-American War (1899 - 1902)
•  World War I (1914 - 1918)


John Joseph "Black Jack" Pershing
General of the Armies

Early Years

John Fletcher Pershing was a boss tracklayer for the North Missouri Railroad at Warrenton, MO, where he met Ann Elizabeth Thompson. On 22 March 1859, they were married. Soon after, they moved to a shanty on the farm of Judge Meredith Brown near Laclede. It was onthat farm on 13 September 1860, that their first child, John Joseph Pershing, was born. Pershing later had five siblings: sisters Ann Elizabeth, Margaret, and May; brothers Ward and James.

When the Civil War began, John and Ann moved to Laclede and bought Lomax's General Store; John was also the postmaster at Laclede. They bought two farms, one 80 acres, the other 160 acres, and a lumberyard. John Fletcher also became the sutler for the 18th Missouri Volunteer Infantry, then quartered at Laclede. [A sutler is a civilian merchant who sells provisions to an army in the field, in camp, or in quarters. The sutler sold wares from the back of a wagon or a temporary tent, allowing them to travel along with an army or to remote military outposts.] During the Civil War, John Fletcher Pershing was elected Lieutenant of the Home Guards; he was later made a Captain.

In 1865, a "select school for small children" was opened in Laclede. John and his brother, James, attended this school. During this time, John Joseph worked on his father's farm and attended school. Between 1870 and 1873, when land prices collapsed, John Fletcher lost his $40,000 fortune and was only able to keep his 160 acre farm. [In 1876, he went to work for I. Weil & Company of St. Joseph, Missouri and sold clothing as a traveling salesman.]

Throughout this sometimes difficult period, the future general demonstrated the qualities which would always be paramount in his life: self-possession, competence, level-headedness, dependability, and the ability to see things through. After completing high school in 1878, he became a teacher at the Negro school at Laclede.

In October 1879, Pershing became the teacher of the school at Prairie Mound, nine miles from Laclede. During the summers of 1880-82, he went to the First Missouri Normal School and Commercial College (now Truman State University) at Kirksville, MO. In the spring of 1882, Pershing saw an announcement for a competitive examination for an appointment to West Point. He had no desire to become a soldier but he saw an opportunity for an excellent education. On the advice of his sister, he took the examination and won the appointment.

USMA: The West Point Years

Pershing was sworn in as a cadet at the United States Military Academy in the fall of 1882. He was not a brilliant scholar; he graduated 30th in a class of 77. But the officers and his classmates at West Point recognized that he had a rare quality of leadership. General Wesley Merritt, then Superintendent of the USMA, said that Pershing showed early promise of becoming a superb officer. He was elected president of the class of 1886. Each year he held the highest possible rank in the Cadet Battalion and they were (successively) First Corporal; First Sergeant; First Lieutenant; and First Captain. Thirteen years before the Spanish-American War began, Cadet First Captain Pershing commanded the Corps of Cadets Honor Guard when it crossed the Hudson from West Point to Garrison to stand at "present arms" while the funeral train of President Ulysses S. Grant rolled slowly by.

Pershing briefly considered petitioning the Army to let him delay his commissioning to study law. He applied for a furlough but soon withdrew the request in favor of active Army duty. In 1886 he was commissioned a second lieutenant in the U.S. Army, at age twenty-six.

Early Career

Pershing's first Army assignment was to Troop L of the 6th U.S. Cavalry stationed at Fort Bayard in the New Mexico Territory, where he reported for duty on 30 September 1886. While serving in the 6th Cavalry, Pershing participated in several Indian campaigns and was cited for bravery for actions against the Apache. During his time at Fort Stanton, Pershing and his close friends, Lieutenants Julius Penn and Richard B. Paddock, were nicknamed "The Three Green P's." The three friends spent their leisure time hunting and attending Hispanic dances. In 1890, Pershing's sister Grace married Richard Paddock.

Between 1887 and 1890, Pershing served with the 6th Cavalry at various postings in California, Arizona, and North Dakota. He became an expert marksman and, in 1891, out of all the soldiers in the U.S. Army, he was rated second in pistol and fifth in rifle.

On 9 December 1890, Pershing and the 6th Cavalry arrived at Sioux City, IA, where he played a role in suppressing the last uprisings of the Lakota (Sioux) Indians. As a second lieutenant, he participated in the Wounded Knee Massacre.

A year later, he was assigned as an instructor of military tactics at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Pershing held this post until 1895. While in Nebraska, he attended law school and graduated in 1893. Additionally, he formed a drill company, Company A, in 1891 that won the Omaha Cup and $1,500. In 1893, Company A became a fraternal organization and changed its name to the Varsity Rifles. The group changed its name for the last time in 1894, renaming itself the Pershing Rifles in honor of its founder.

On 1 October 1895, Pershing was promoted to first lieutenant and took command of a troop of the 10th Cavalry Regiment (one of the original Buffalo Soldier regiments), composed of African-American soldiers serving under white officers. From Fort Assinniboine in north central Montana, he commanded an expedition to the south and southwest that rounded up and deported a large number of Cree Indians to Canada.

Return to West Point

In 1897, Pershing was appointed to the Academy's tactical staff as an instructor, where he was assigned to Cadet Company A. Because of his strictness and rigidity, Pershing was unpopular with the cadets, who took to calling him "Nigger Jack" because of his service with the 10th Cavalry. During the course of his tour at the Academy, this epithet softened to "Black Jack," although, according to Vandiver, "the intent remained hostile." Still, this nickname stuck with Pershing for the rest of his life, and became known to the public as early as 1917.

The Spanish and Philippine-American Wars

At the start of the Spanish-American War, First Lieutenant Pershing was offered a brevet rank and commissioned a Brevet Major of Volunteers on August 26, 1898. [Brevet referred to a warrant authorizing a commissioned officer to hold a higher rank temporarily, but usually without receiving the pay of that higher rank except when actually serving in that role.] He fought with the 10th Cavalry (Buffalo Soldiers) on Kettle and San Juan Hill in Cuba and was cited for gallantry. In the words of his commanding general, Samuel M. B. Young, he was "the coolest man under fire that I ever saw." (In 1919, he was awarded the Silver Citation Star for his actions; in 1932 the award was upgraded to the Silver Star Medal.)

In March 1899, after suffering from malaria, Pershing was put in charge of the Office of Customs and Insular Affairs which oversaw occupation forces in territories gained in the Spanish-American War, including Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Philippines, and Guam.

When the Philippine-American War began, Pershing was either ordered, or he requested transfer, to Manila. He reported on 17 August 1899 as a Brevet Major of Volunteers and was assigned to the Department of Mindanao and Jolo and commanded efforts to suppress the Filipino insurrection. On 27 November 1900, Pershing was appointed Adjutant General of his department and served in this posting until 1 March 1901. He was cited for bravery for actions on the Cagayan River while attempting to destroy a Philippine stronghold at Macajambo.

In 1901, Pershing's brevet commission was revoked, and he reassumed his rank as a captain in the Regular Army. He served with the 1st Cavalry Regiment in the Philippines. He was later assigned to the 15th Cavalry Regiment, serving as an intelligence officer and participating in actions against the Moros. He was cited for bravery at Lake Lanao. In June 1901, he served as Commander of Camp Vicars in Lanao, Philippines, after the previous camp commander had been promoted to brigadier general.

Rise to General

Pershing was ordered to return to the U.S. in June 1903. President Theodore Roosevelt, impressed by Pershing's ability, petitioned the Army General Staff to promote him to colonel. At the time, Army officer promotions were based primarily on seniority, rather than merit, and although there was widespread acceptance that Pershing should serve as a colonel, the Army General Staff declined to change their seniority-based promotion tradition just to accommodate Pershing. They would not consider a promotion to lieutenant colonel or even major. This angered Roosevelt, but since the President could only name and promote army officers in the General ranks, his options for recognizing Pershing through promotion were limited.

In 1904, Pershing was assigned as the Assistant Chief of Staff of the Southwest Army Division stationed at Oklahoma City, OK. In October of '04, he attended the Army War College, and then was ordered to Washington, DC, for "general duties unassigned."

Since Theodore Roosevelt could not yet promote Pershing, he petitioned the U.S. Congress to authorize a diplomatic posting, and Pershing was stationed as military attaché in Tokyo in 1905. Also in 1905, Pershing married Helen Frances Warren, the daughter of powerful U.S. Senator Francis E. Warren, a Wyoming Republican and Chairman of the U.S. Military Appropriations Committee. Some have indicated this union helped his military career.

After serving as an observer in the Russo-Japanese War, Pershing returned to the U.S. in the fall of 1905. President Roosevelt employed his presidential prerogative and nominated Pershing as a brigadier general, a move which Congress approved. In skipping three ranks and more than 835 officers senior to him, the promotion gave rise to accusations that Pershing's appointment was the result of political connections and not military abilities. However, many other officers supported Pershing and believed that, based on his demonstrated ability to command combat forces, the promotion to general, while unusual, was not unprecedented or out of line.

In 1908, Pershing briefly served as a U.S. military observer in the Balkans, an assignment which was based out of Paris. Upon returning to the U.S. at the end of 1909, Pershing was assigned once again to the Philippines, an assignment where he served until 1912. While in the Philippines, he served as Commander of Fort McKinley, near Manila, and also was the governor of the Moro Province. The last of Pershing's four children was born in the Philippines, and during this time he became an Episcopalian.

Pancho Villa; Personal Tragedy; Mexican Revolution

In January 1914, Pershing was assigned to command the Army 8th Cavalry Regiment in Fort Bliss, Texas, responsible for security along the U.S.-Mexico border. In March 1916, under the command of General Frederick Funston, Pershing led the 8th Regiment on the failed 1916-17 Punitive Expedition into Mexico in search of the revolutionary leader Pancho Villa. He had met Villa in 1913 when he invited him to Fort Bliss. During this time, George S. Patton served as one of Pershing's aides.

After a year at Fort Bliss, Pershing decided to move his family there. The arrangements were almost complete when, on the morning of 27 August 1915, he received a telegram telling him of a tragic fire in the Presidio of San Francisco, where a lacquered floor blaze in Pershing's quarters had rapidly spread, resulting in the smoke inhalation deaths of his wife, Helen, and three young daughters. Only his six-year-old son Warren survived. Many who knew Pershing said he never recovered from their deaths. After the funerals at Lakeview Cemetery in Cheyenne, WY, Pershing returned to Fort Bliss with Warren and his sister Mae, and resumed his duties as commanding officer.

World War I

At the start of the United States' involvement in World War I, President Woodrow Wilson considered mobilizing an army to join the fight. Frederick Funston, Pershing's superior in Mexico, was being considered for the top billet as the Commander of the American Expeditionary Force (AEF) when he died suddenly from a heart attack on 19 February 1917. Following America's entrance into the war, Wilson, after a short interview, named Pershing to command; a post he retained until 1918. Pershing, who was a major general, was promoted to full general (the first since Philip Sheridan in 1888) in the National Army, and was made responsible for the organization, training, and supply of a combined professional and draft Army and National Guard force that eventually grew from 27,000 inexperienced men to two Armies (a third was forming as the war ended) totaling over two million soldiers.

Pershing exercised significant control over his command, with a full delegation of authority from Wilson and Secretary of War Newton D. Baker. Baker, cognizant of the endless problems of domestic and allied political involvement in military decision making in wartime, gave Pershing unmatched authority to run his command as he saw fit. In turn, Pershing exercised his prerogative carefully, not engaging in issues that might distract or diminish his command. While earlier a champion of the African-American soldier, he did not push for their full participation on the battlefield. He understood the widespread racial attitudes among white Americans generally, as well as Wilson's reactionary views on race and the political debts he owed to southern Democratic law makers.

George C. Marshall served as one of Pershing's top assistants during, and after, the war. Pershing's initial chief of staff was businessman James Harbord who, although he later took a combat command, worked as Pershing's closest assistant for many years and remained extremely loyal to Pershing.

Under top secrecy, Pershing departed from Fort Jay on Governors Island in New York Harbor in May 1917 and arrived in France in June. In a show of American presence, part of the 16th Infantry Regiment marched through Paris shortly after his arrival. Pausing at Gilbert du Motier, marquis de La Fayette's tomb, he was reputed to have uttered the famous line "Lafayette, we are here." [In fact, the line was spoken by his aide, Colonel Charles E. Stanton.] American forces were deployed in France in the autumn of 1917.

Battle of Hamel

For the first time in American history, Pershing allowed American soldiers to be under the command of a foreign power. In late June, General Rawlinson, commanding the British Fourth Army, suggested to Australian Lieutenant General John Monash that American involvement in a set-piece attack alongside the experienced Australians in the upcoming Battle of Hamel would give the American troops experience and also strengthen the Australian battalions by an additional company each. On 29 June, General Bell, commanding the American 33rd Division, selected two companies each from the 131st and 132nd Infantry regiments of the 66th brigade. However, Monash had been promised ten companies of American troops and on 30 June the remaining companies of the 1st and 2nd battalions of the 131st regiment were sent. Each American platoon was attached to an Australian company. However, there was difficulty in integrating the American platoons (which numbered 60 men) amongst the Australian companies of 100 men. This difficulty was overcome by reducing the size of each American platoon by one-fifth and sending these troops, which numbered 50 officers and men, back to battalion reinforcement camps.

African-American Units

Pershing bowed to the racial policies of President Woodrow Wilson, Secretary of War Newton D. Baker, and southern Democrats who promoted the "separate but equal" doctrine. African-American "Buffalo Soldiers" units were not allowed to participate with the American Expeditionary Force (AEF) during World War I, but experienced non-commissioned officers were provided to other segregated black units for combat service - such as the 317th Engineer Battalion. The American Buffalo Soldiers of the 92nd and the 93rd Infantry Divisions were the first Americans to fight in France in 1918, albeit detached from the AEF and under French command. Most regiments of the 92nd and all of the 93rd would continue to fight under French command for the duration of the war.

World War I: 1918 and Full American Participation

In early 1918, entire divisions were beginning to serve on the front lines alongside French troops. Pershing insisted that the AEF fight as units under American command rather than being split up by battalions to augment British and French regiments and brigades. [However, the U.S. 27th and 30th Divisions, loaned during the desperate days of spring 1918, fought with the British/Australian/Canadian Fourth Army until the end of the war, taking part in the breach of the Hindenburg Line in October.]

In October 1918, Pershing saw the need for a dedicated Military Police Corps and the first U.S. Army MP School was established at Autun, France. For this, he is considered the "founding father" of the MPs.

Because of the effects of trench warfare on soldiers' feet, in January 1918, Pershing oversaw the creation of an improved combat boot, the "1918 Trench Boot," which, upon its introduction, became known as the "Pershing Boot."

American forces first saw serious action during the summer of 1918, contributing eight large divisions, alongside 24 French ones, at the Second Battle of the Marne. Along with the British Fourth Army's victory at Amiens, the Franco-American victory at the Second Battle of the Marne marked the turning point of the war on the Western Front.

In August 1918 the U.S. First Army was formed; first under Pershing's direct command and then by Hunter Liggett when the U.S. Second Army under Robert Bullard was created. After a quick victory at Saint-Mihiel, east of Verdun, some of the more bullish AEF commanders had hoped to push on eastwards to Metz, but this did not fit in with the plans of the Allied Supreme Commander, Marshal Foch, for three simultaneous offensives into the "bulge" of the Western Front (the other two being the Fourth Army's breach of the Hindenburg Line and an Anglo-Belgian offensive, led by Plumer's Second Army, in Flanders). Instead, the AEF was required to redeploy and, aided by French tanks, launched a major offensive northwards in very difficult terrain at Meuse-Argonne. Initially enjoying numerical odds of eight to one, this offensive eventually engaged 35 or 40 of the 190 or so German divisions on the Western Front, although to put this in perspective, around half the German divisions were engaged on the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) sector at the time. The offensive was, however, marked by Pershing's failure: his reliance on massed infantry attacks with little artillery support led to high casualty rates in the capturing of three key points. This was despite the AEF facing only second-line German troops after Erich Ludendorff's decision to withdraw to the Hindenburg line on October 3rd - and in notable contrast to the simultaneous British breakthrough of the Hindenburg Line in the north. Pershing was subsequently forced to reorganize the AEF with the creation of the Second Army, and to step down as the commander of the First Army.

When he arrived in Europe, Pershing had openly scorned the slow trench warfare of the previous three years on the Western Front, believing that American soldiers' skill with the rifle would enable them to avoid costly and senseless fighting over a small area of no man's land. This was regarded as unrealistic by British and French generals, and (privately) by a number of American generals such as Army Chief of Staff Tasker H. Bliss and his own Hunter Liggett. Even German generals were negative, Ludendorff dismissing Pershing's strategic efforts in the Meuse-Argonne offensive by recalling how "the attacks of the youthful American troops broke down with the heaviest losses." The AEF had done well in the relatively open warfare of the Second Battle of the Marne, but the eventual U.S. casualty rates against German defensive positions in the Argonne (120,000 U.S. casualties in six weeks, against 35 or 40 German divisions) were not noticeably better than those of the Franco-British offensive on the Somme two years earlier (600,000 casualties in four and a half months, versus 50 or so German divisions). More ground was gained, but then the German Army was in worse shape than in previous years.

Some writers have speculated that Pershing's frustration at the slow progress through the Argonne was the cause of two incidents which then ensued. First, he ordered the U.S. First Army to take "the honor" of recapturing Sedan, site of the French defeat in 1870; the ensuing confusion (an order was issued that "boundaries were not to be considered binding") exposed U.S. troops to danger not only from the French on their left, but even from one another, as the 1st Division tacked westward by night across the path of the 42nd (accounts differ as to whether Douglas MacArthur was really mistaken for a German officer and arrested). Liggett, who had been away from headquarters the previous day, had to sort out the mess and implement the instructions from Supreme Commander Marshal Foch, allowing the French to recapture the city. He later recorded that this was the only time during the war in which he lost his temper.

Second, Pershing sent an unsolicited letter to the Allied Supreme War Council, demanding that the Germans not be given an armistice; that instead the Allies should push on and obtain an unconditional surrender. Although in later years, many, including President Franklin D. Roosevelt, felt that Pershing had had a point, at the time, this was a breach of political authority. Pershing narrowly escaped a serious reprimand from Wilson's aide, Colonel House, and later apologized.

At the time of the Armistice, another U.S.-French offensive was due to start on 14 November, thrusting towards Metz and into Lorraine, to take place simultaneously with further BEF advances through Belgium.

In his memoirs, Pershing claimed that the U.S. breakout from the Argonne at the start of November was the decisive event leading to the German acceptance of an armistice, because it made untenable the Antwerp-Meuse line. This is probably an exaggeration; the outbreak of civil unrest and naval mutiny in Germany, the collapse of Bulgaria, Turkey, and particularly Austria-Hungary following Allied victories in Salonika, Syria, and Italy, and the Allied victories on the Western Front were among a series of events in the autumn of 1918 which made it clear that Allied victory was inevitable, and diplomatic inquiries about an armistice had been going on throughout October. President Wilson was keen to tie matters up before the mid-term elections, and the other Allies did not have the strength to defeat Germany without U.S. help, so had little choice but to follow Wilson's lead.

American successes were largely credited to Pershing, and he became the most celebrated American leader of the war. Critics, however, claimed that Pershing commanded from far behind the lines and was critical of commanders who personally led troops into battle. Douglas MacArthur saw Pershing as a desk soldier, and the relationship between the two men deteriorated by the end of the war. Similar criticism of senior commanders by the younger generation of officers (the future generals of World War II) was made in the British and other armies, but in fairness to Pershing, although it was not uncommon for brigade commanders to serve near the front and even be killed, the state of communications in World War I made it more practical for senior generals to command from the rear. He controversially ordered his troops to continue fighting after the armistice was signed. This resulted in 3,500 U.S. casualties on the last day of the war, an act which was regarded as murder by several officers under his command.

Later Career

In 1919, in recognition of his distinguished service during WWI, the U.S. Congress authorized the President to promote Pershing to General of the Armies of the United States, the highest rank possible for any member of the United States Armed Forces. The rank was created especially for him and was one that only he held at the time (General George Washington was posthumously promoted to this rank by President Gerald Ford in 1976. Washington's rank was also made senior to all others, past or present). Pershing was authorized to create his insignia for the new rank and chose to wear four gold stars for the rest of his career, which separated him from the four (temporary) silver stars worn by Army Chiefs of Staff, and even the five star General of the Army insignia worn by Marshall, MacArthur, Bradley, Eisenhower, and H. 'Hap' Arnold in World War II (Pershing outranked them all).

There was a movement to make Pershing President of the United States in 1920, but he refused to actively campaign. In a newspaper article, he said that he "wouldn't decline to serve" if the people wanted him, and this made front page headlines. Though Pershing was a Republican, many of his party's leaders considered him too closely tied to the policies of the Democratic Party's President Wilson. The Republican nomination went to Senator Warren G. Harding of Ohio, who won the 1920 presidential election.

In 1921, Pershing became Chief of Staff of the U.S. Army, serving for three years. He created the Pershing Map, a proposed national network of military and civilian highways. The Interstate Highway System instituted in 1956 bears considerable resemblance to the Pershing map. In 1924, then 64 years old, Pershing retired from active military service, yet continued to be listed on the active duty rolls as part of his commission as General of the Armies.

On 1 November 1921, Pershing was in Kansas City, MO, to take part in the groundbreaking ceremony for the Liberty Memorial that was being constructed there. Also present that day were Lieutenant General Baron Jacques of Belgium, Admiral David Beatty of Great Britain, Marshal Ferdinand Foch of France and General Armando Diaz of Italy. One of the main speakers was Vice President Calvin Coolidge. In 1935, bas-reliefs of Pershing, Jacques, Foch and Diaz by sculptor Walker Hancock were added to the memorial. Pershing also laid the cornerstone of the World War Memorial in Indianapolis, IN, on 4 July 1927.

On 2 October 1922, amidst several hundred officers, many of them combat veterans of World War I, Pershing formally established the Reserve Officers Association (ROA) as an organization at the Willard Hotel in Washington, DC. ROA is a 75,000-member, professional association of officers, former officers, and spouses of all the uniformed services of the United States, primarily the Reserve and United States National Guard. It is a congressionally chartered Association that advises the Congress and the President on issues of national security on behalf of all members of the Reserve Component.

Pershing served on a committee of the Sons of the American Revolution to establish and recognize Constitution Day in the United States.

During the 1930s, Pershing maintained a private life but was made famous by his memoirs, My Experiences in the World War, which were awarded the 1932 Pulitzer Prize for history. He was also an active Civitan during this time.

In 1940, Pershing was an outspoken advocate of aid for the United Kingdom during World War II. In 1944, with the creation of the new five-star rank General of the Army, Pershing was acknowledged as the highest ranking officer of the United States military. When asked if this made Pershing a six-star General, Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson commented that it did not, since Pershing never wore more than four stars but that Pershing was still to be considered senior to the present five star generals of World War II.

In July 1944, Pershing was visited by Free French leader General Charles de Gaulle. When Pershing, by then semi-senile, asked after the health of his old friend, Marshal Philippe Pétain (who was heading the pro-German Vichy regime), de Gaulle replied tactfully that when he last saw him, the Marshal was well.

Pershing's Assignment History

• 1882: Cadet, United States Military Academy
• 1886: Troop L, Sixth Cavalry
• 1891: Professor of Tactics, University of Nebraska-Lincoln
• 1895: Commanding Officer, 10th Cavalry Regiment
• 1897: Instructor, United States Military Academy, West Point
• 1898: Major of Volunteer Forces, Cuban Campaign, Spanish-American War
• 1899: Officer-in-Charge, Office of Customs and Insular Affairs
• 1900: Adjutant General, Department of Mindanao and Jolo, Philippines
• 1901: Battalion Officer, 1st Cavalry and Intelligence Officer, 15th Cavalry (Philippines)
• 1902: Officer-in-Charge, Camp Vicars, Philippines
• 1904: Assistant Chief of Staff, Southwest Army Division, Oklahoma
• 1905: Military attaché, U.S. Embassy, Tokyo, Japan
• 1908: Military Advisor to American Embassy, France
• 1909: Commander of Fort McKinley, Manila, and governor of Moro Province
• 1914: Brigade Commander, 8th Army Brigade
• 1916: Commanding General, Mexican Punitive Expedition
• 1917: Commanding General for the formation of the National Army
• 1918: Commanding General, American Expeditionary Forces, Europe
• 1921: Chief of Staff of the United States Army
• 1924: Retired from active military service
• 1925: Chief Commissioner assigned by the United States in the arbitration case for the provinces of Tacna and Arica between Peru and Chile.

Medals and Awards from the United States Army

• Distinguished Service Cross
• Distinguished Service Medal
• World War I Victory Medal (with 15 Battle Clasps)
• Indian Campaign Medal
• Spanish Campaign Medal (with Silver Citation Star)
• Army of Cuban Occupation Medal
• Philippine Campaign Medal
• Mexican Service Medal

In 1932, seven years after Pershing's retirement from active service, his silver citation star was upgraded to the Silver Star Medal and he became eligible for the Purple Heart. In 1941, he was retroactively awarded the Army of Occupation of Germany Medal for service in Germany following the close of World War I.

Since General Pershing was on permanent active duty when he was promoted to General of the Armies, he was also eligible for the American Defense Service Medal, the American Campaign Medal and the World War Two Victory Medal.

International Medals and Awards

• Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath (Britain)
• Grand Cross of the Legion of Honor (France)
• Military Medal (France)
• Croix de Guerre with Palm (France)
• Grand Cross of the Order of Leopold (Belgium)
• Croix de Guerre (Belgium)
• Order Virtuti Militari (2nd class - Commander's Cross) (Poland)
• Order of the White Lion (1st Class with Sword) (Czechoslovakia)
• Czechoslovakian War Cross
• Grand Cordon of the Order of the Precious Jade (China)
• Order of the Golden Grain (1st Class) (China)
• Order of the Redeemer (Greece)
• Grand Cross of the Military Order of Savoy (Italy)
• Grand Cross of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus (Italy)
• Order of the Rising Sun (Japan)
• Medaille Oblitch (Montenegro)
• Grand Cross of the Order of Prince Danilo I (Montenegro)
• Medal of La Solidaridad (1st Class) (Panama)
• Grand Cross of the Order of the Sun (Peru)
• Order of Michael the Brave (1st Class) (Romania)
• Grand Cordon of the Order of the Liberator (Venezuela)
• Grand Cross of the Order of the Star of Karageorge with Swords (Serbia)

Civilian Medals and Awards

• Congressional Gold Medal
• Thanks of the United States Congress
• Special Medal of the Committee of the city of Buenos Aires

Other Miscellaneous Honors

• Since 1930, the Pershing Park Memorial Association (PPMA), headquartered in Pershing's hometown of Laclede, MO, has been dedicated to preserving the memory of General Pershing's military history.
• On 17 November 1961, the United States Postal Service released an 8¢ Liberty Issue postage stamp honoring Pershing.
• Pershing was immensely popular after World War I, and as a result a large number of organization, equipment, streets and buildings are named after him throughout the United States and abroad:


• The National Society of Pershing Rifles, founded by Pershing, continues on today as America's premier undergraduate military fraternal organization. He also founded the Military Order of the World Wars.
• The 2nd Brigade of the 1st Cavalry Division (United States) is nicknamed "Black Jack."
• B Troop (Black Jack Troop) 5/15 Cavalry Regiment at Fort Knox, KY, the home of Armor and Cavalry where brand new 19D Cavalry Scouts are trained. A parade field in front of the B Troop barracks is called "Pershing Field" in honor of the General, and a placard of his works lies in its corner.

Military ordnance and other equipment:

• The M26 Pershing tank was an American armored vehicle introduced in 1945
• The Pershing missile
• In 1938, the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad named a diesel engine streamliner train the General Pershing Zephyr


• Elementary Schools: Berwyn, IL, Joliet, IL, West Milwaukee, WI, Muskogee, OK
• Middle Schools: Houston, TX, Springfield, MO, Sunset Park, Brooklyn, NY
• High Schools: Detroit, MI

College buildings:

• Pershing Arena, Pershing Society, Pershing Hall, and the Pershing Scholarships of Truman State University in Kirksville, MO (Pershing's former college)
• Pershing Barracks at the United States Military Academy. Completed in 1895 as the Academic Building for West Point, it was renamed the West Academic Building in 1913. It was later converted to a barracks and renamed Pershing Barracks
• John J. Pershing Military and Naval Science Building of University of Nebraska-Lincoln
• Pershing Hall of Montana State University - Northern in Havre, MT

Military buildings:

• Pershing Hall on The Presidio of San Francisco in San Francisco, CA
• Pershing Hall on Governors Island, NY


• The Pershing Center, a multi-purpose arena in downtown Lincoln, NE
• The Pershing Building in Kansas City, MO, located on Pershing Road


• Pershing Road: Chicago (formerly 39th Street), Kansas City, MO (the northern border to The Liberty Memorial, the Official National World War I Memorial), Fort Bliss, TX
• General Pershing Street: Hammond, LA, New Orleans (in the Uptown section)
• Pershing Avenue: St. Louis, MO (previously known as Berlin Avenue), Fort Riley, KS, Phoenix, AZ, San Diego, CA, Stockton, CA, Orlando, FL
• Pershing Drive: North Omaha, Florence, NE
• General Pershing Boulevard: Oklahoma City, OK (on the Oklahoma State Fairgrounds, formerly part of Main Street), Cheyenne, WY (a main road to Warren AFB)
• Boulevard Pershing on the western edge of Paris, France runs past the Palais des Congrès near the Porte Maillot. Many of the major streets in the area (the XV Le arrondissement) are named after notable French military figures, including Avenue Foch, named after Marshall Foch, and at either end of Boulevard Pershing, streets named after the Marshals of France Gouvion Saint-Cyr and Koenig. It reflects the immense popularity of the American troops who first arrived in the French capital in 1916.

Squares and plazas:

• Pershing Square in Downtown Los Angeles, CA
• Pershing Square in New York City on 42nd Street at Park Avenue in front of Grand Central Terminal
• Plaza Pershing in Zamboanga City, Philippines


• Pershing Park in Washington, DC, features the Pershing Memorial
• Pershing State Park, in north-central Missouri between Laclede and Meadville


• Pershing County, NV
• A riderless horse was named in honor of Pershing, "Black Jack." This horse was used for many years in funerals for heads of state, including President John F. Kennedy.
• The Pershing Division of the Clarence Cannon Conference, a high school athletic conference in Northeastern Missouri in the area where the general lived during his youth. The other division in the conference honors Harry S Truman.
• The Great Pershing Balloon Derby at Brookfield, MO is named in his honor and is held over the Labor Day weekend each year
• General Pershing, a British racehorse that took part in the 1995 Grand National Steeplechase.
• Stade Pershing(baseball diamond), baseball park in Paris, France
• Pershing was a Freemason, a member of Lincoln Lodge No.19, Lincoln, NE


Pershing's mother, Ann Elizabeth, died on 24 November 1902 in Chicago, IL; his father, John Fletcher Pershing, died in Lincoln, NE, on 16 March 1906. John and Ann are buried together at Oak Woods Cemetery, Chicago, Cook County, IL.

John J. Pershing's beloved wife, Helen Frances "Frankie" Pershing (nee Warren), who he married on 26 January 1905, died of smoke inhalation at the family's quarters at the Presidio of San Francisco on 27 August 1915. Their three young daughters also died of smoke inhalation in that fire:

• Helen Elizabeth Pershing (1906 - 1915)
• Ann Orr Pershing (1908 - 1915)
• Mary Margaret Pershing (1912 - 1915)

A fourth child, son Francis Warren Pershing, survived the fire. Helen and the three daughters are buried at Lakeview Cemetery, Cheyenne, Laramie County, WY.

John J. Pershing's son, Colonel Francis Warren Pershing (1909-1980), served in World War II as an advisor to Army Chief of Staff, General George C. Marshall. After the war he continued with his financial career and founded a stock brokerage firm (Pershing & Company). He was father to two sons, Richard W. Pershing (1942-1968) and John Warren Pershing III (1941-1999). Second Lieutenant Richard Pershing served in the 502nd Infantry and was killed in action on 17 February 1968, in Vietnam. John Pershing III served as a Special Assistant to former Army Chief of Staff General Gordon R. Sullivan, also attaining the rank of Colonel. He helped shape Army and Army ROTC programs nationwide. Colonel Pershing died of cardiovascular disease in 1999.

Death & Burial

On 15 July 1948, Pershing died of coronary artery disease and congestive heart failure at the Walter Reed Army Medical Center in Washington, DC. Since 1944, he had lived in his specially-built set of quarters on the top floor of the hospital.

His funeral service, one of only a handful ever held at the Memorial Amphitheater in Arlington National Cemetery, was attended by literally thousands of American citizens as well as by the leaders of government and the military. He was buried, as was his wish, under a simple white gravestone in Section 34 of Arlington National Cemetery, near the graves of soldiers he commanded in World War I.

His grandsons, Army Second Lieutenant Richard Warren Pershing, who was killed-in-action in Vietnam in 1968, and Colonel John Warren Pershing III, are buried beside him.

Origin of Nickname/Handle:
In 1897, Pershing was appointed to the Academy's tactical staff as an instructor, where he was assigned to Cadet Company A. Because of his strictness and rigidity, Pershing was unpopular with the cadets, who took to calling him "Nigger Jack" because of his service with the 10th Cavalry. During the course of his tour at the Academy, this epithet softened to "Black Jack," although, according to Vandiver, "the intent remained hostile." Still, this nickname stuck with Pershing for the rest of his life, and became known to the public as early as 1917.

Honoree ID: 3   Created by: MHOH




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